History of Montenegro
The first inhabitants on the Balkan peninsula were the Illyrians. The Slavic people followed their footsteps in the 6th and 7th centuries. What is nowadays Montenegro, was back in the 14th century known as the Serbian principality of Zeta.
The principality was under the Ottoman Empire rule from the 14th to the 19th century, despite the fact that this mountainous region managed to avoid Ottoman control.
Later, it became a principality of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and achieved its independence in 1878. In 1910., Prince Nicholas I proclaimed himself king. During World War I, the country was fighting on the side of the Allies and was defeated by the Austro-German forces.
For this reason, king Nicholas was forced to flee the country. Consequently, Montenegro was annexed to Serbia, then called the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, and renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Yugoslavia became a Communist republic under Josip Broz Tito.
Tito’s ruling kept the ethnic tensions under control until his death in 1980. Without his influence, ethnic and nationalist differences began to rise, and by the 1990s Yugoslavia ended up in a ten-year civil war.
In the war’s aftermath, Serbia and Montenegro were the only two remaining republics of Yugoslavia, and in February of 2003., they have formed a new state, called Serbia and Montenegro.
In May of 2006., the Montenegrin people held a referendum on its independence, which narrowly passed. On June 3rd, it has declared independence, and on June 26th, it became the 192nd member of the United Nations.
Nowadays, Montenegro is a proper hidden gem, tucked away from the crowds. Offering a plethora of possibilities, this country will amaze you with its untouched nature, dramatic scenery, Adriatic coastline and high mountain ranges in the north.
Geography of Montenegro
The land ranges from high mountains along its borders with Kosovo and Albania, through a part of the Karst region of the Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain, only 2 to 6 km wide.
Montenegro’s section of the Karst lies generally at an elevation of 900 meters above sea level. Despite this fact, some areas rise to 1,800 meters. The Zeta River occupies the center of Nikšić Polje, in a form of typical karstic terrain. This would mean that there is the predominantly limestone underlying rock, which dissolves to form sinkholes and underground caves.
The high mountains of the country have some of the most rugged terrains in Europe and average more than 2,000 meters in elevation. The country’s highest point is Bobotov Peak in the Durmitor National Park, with a reach of 2,522 meters.
Montenegro’s lower parts boast a Mediterranean climate, with dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Temperature varies with elevation.
The country’s mountainous regions have some of the highest amounts of rainfall in Europe. Annual precipitation at the village of Crkvice, above the Bay of Kotor, is nearly 5,100 mm. Like most areas along the Mediterranean Sea, precipitation occurs principally during the cold part of the year.